- It refers to an action that happened in the past, but very close to the present. In this way, it can be said that present perfect simple is near past. 

Example: I have been in Madrid this morning.

- To emphasize the result of an activity.

Example: I have read five e-mails today.

-To indicate how many times an action happens.

Example: I have watched this film three times.





- Afirmative: subject + have/has + participle (-ed regular verbs/3rd column in irregular verbs) + complements

- Negative: subject + haven't/ hasn't + participle + complements

- Question: Have/ Has + subject + participle + complements?




ALREADY: I have already read this book. (Only in affirmative sentences)

YET: I haven’t read this book yet. (In negative and questions sentences)

JUST: I have just eaten. (When you finish to do something)

NEVER: I have never been in England (only affirmative sentences, although the meaning is negative).

EVER: I haven’t ever been in England. / Have you ever been in England? (In negative and interrogative questions. In negative sentences it means “never”.

SINCE: I have lived in this city since 2005. It indicates the beginning of an action, but we never know when it finishes.

FOR: I have lived in this city for five years. It refers to “a period of time”, there’s a beginning and an end of the action.